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Zimbabwe African People's Union

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Title: Zimbabwe African People's Union  
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Subject: Zimbabwean general election, 2013, Victoria Falls Conference (1975), Rhodesian mission in Lisbon, Tichafa Samuel Parirenyatwa, Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army
Collection: 1961 Establishments in Southern Rhodesia, African and Black Nationalism, African and Black Nationalist Organizations in Africa, Black Liberation Movements in the British Empire, Communism in Zimbabwe, Guerrilla Organizations, History of Zimbabwe, Left-Wing Parties, National Liberation Armies, National Liberation Movements, Organizations Formerly Designated as Terrorist, Political Parties Disestablished in 1987, Political Parties Established in 1961, Political Parties in Rhodesia, Rebel Groups in Zimbabwe, Socialist Parties in Zimbabwe
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Zimbabwe African People's Union

Zimbabwe African People's Union
Leader Dumiso Dabengwa
Founded 8 November 2008 (8 November 2008) (current form)
17 December 1961 (historic)
House of Assembly
0 / 210
0 / 93
Pan African Parliament
0 / 5
Party flag
Politics of Zimbabwe
Political parties

The Zimbabwe African People's Union is a Zimbabwe from its founding in 1961 until independence in 1980. In 1987 it merged with the Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front [1] and was relaunched in 2008.

The party was formed on 17 December 1961, 10 days after the Rhodesian government banned the National Democratic Party (NDP). Founded by Joshua Nkomo as president, Parirenyatwa as vice-president, Ndabaningi Sithole as chairman, Jason Moyo, Robert Mugabe as information and publicity secretary, Leopold Takawira as external secretary, at the request of Joseph Msika, ZAPU was banned in 1962 by the Rhodesian white minority government, and was later engaged in a guerrilla war against it. The armed wing of ZAPU, known as Zimbabwe People's Revolutionary Army (ZIPRA), was commanded by General Lookout Masuku.

ZAPU was aligned with the Soviet Union whose ideology was to mobilise the urban workers, whereas ZANU had a pro-People's Republic of China orientation which was to mobilise the rural peasantry.


  • Unification into ZANU-PF 1
    • Unity Accord 1.1
  • 2008 Withdrawal from Unity Accord 2
    • ZAPU National Consultative Convention 2.1
    • Party Congress of 2009 2.2
    • 9th Party Congress 2010 2.3
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • External links 5

Unification into ZANU-PF

In 1980 it contested elections in Zimbabwe as the Patriotic Front, but lost to its rival the ZANU. They merged into ZANU-PF in 1987 following the Gukurahundi massacres.

Unity Accord

The Unity Accord signed at that meeting stated:

  1. That ZANU PF and PF ZAPU have irrevocably committed themselves to unite under one political party.
  2. That the unity of the two political parties; shall be achieved under the name Zimbabwe African National Union (Patriotic Front) in short ZANU PF.
  3. That Comrade Robert Gabriel Mugabe shall be the First Secretary and President of ZANU PF.
  4. That ZANU PF shall have two Second Secretaries and Vice-Presidents who shall be appointed by the First Secretary and President of the Party.
  5. That ZANU PF shall seek to establish a socialist society in Zimbabwe on the guidance of Marxist-Leninist principles.
  6. That ZANU PF shall seek to establish a One Party State in Zimbabwe.
  7. That the leadership of ZANU PF shall abide by the Leadership Code.
  8. That the existing structures of ZANU PF and PF ZAPU shall be merged in accordance with the letter and spirit of this Agreement.
  9. That both parties shall, in the interim, take immediate vigorous steps to eliminate and end the insecurity and violence prevalent in Matabeleland.
  10. That ZANU PF and PF ZAPU shall convene their respective Congress to give effect to this Agreement within the shortest possible time.
  11. That, in the interim, Comrade Robert Gabriel Mugabe is vested with full powers to prepare for the implementation of this Agreement and to act in the name and authority of ZANU PF.

2008 Withdrawal from Unity Accord

In mid-October 2008, in the midst of the ongoing negotiations with rival parties, a group of former PF ZAPU and Zipra members became outspoken in the desire to dissolve the alliance with ZANU-PF. According to the website, the members convened a meeting in on 8 November 2008 and it was decided:[2]

  1. That the political structure of ZAPU cease to operate under the title ZANU PF and to resume the title ZAPU.
  2. That all party structures operate under the authority of the Constitution of ZAPU.
  3. That the District Councils should meet to prepare for and convene a Consultative Conference consisting of the ten Provinces by December 2008, for the purpose of electing an Interim Executive charged with the responsibility to mobilise and restructure the party and convene the party Congress by March 2009, in terms of Article 6 of the constitution of ZAPU.
  4. That a campaign to mobilise resources in the country, from well-wishers everywhere, from fraternal political parties and International Organisations be undertaken forthwith.
  5. To engage as necessary in the negotiations and peace building initiatives to emeliorate the political and economic hardships presently being endured by the people of Zimbabwe.
  6. To convene a consultative Conference consisting of all the ten political Provinces by December 2008 for the purpose of electing an Interim Executive, charged to mobilise and restructure the party and convene the Party's Congress by March 2009, in terms of Article 6 of the Constitution of ZAPU.
  7. THIS IS DONE AND AGREED TO by us the delegates to the Consultative Meeting at Stanley Square, Bulawayo on 8 November 2008.

This resulted in a party-internal controversy which culminated in an official severing of ties with ZANU-PF in December 2008.

ZAPU National Consultative Convention

At the party conference, the ZAPU National Consultative Convention, held from the 13th to the 14 December 2008, Dumiso Dabengwa, a former Home Affairs minister was elected interim chairperson with the mandate to convene a two-day congress starting the 11 April 2009. The congress would formally endorse the pullout from ZANU and elect an executive for the party. The convention took place at MacDonald's Hall in Mzilikazi suburb in Bulawayo.[4]

Party Congress of 2009

The party congress of 2009 which was supposed to elect new leadership took place a month later that scheduled, on the 16 May 2009.[5] The congress formally endorsed the party's withdrawal from ZANU PF. The party announced that it had officially cut ties with ZANU PF and had withdrawn support for its former members who had chosen to remain in ZANU. The congress was attended by delegates from the country's 10 provinces as well as representatives from Canada, South Africa, Botswana and Swaziland.[6]

9th Party Congress 2010

A full Congress was held at the Bulawayo Trade Fair in August 2010 at which a full policy was agreed and a substantive leadership elected with Dumiso Dabengwa as President and Emilia Mukaratirwa as Vice-President.

See also


  1. ^ Sibanda, Eliakim M. The Zimbabwe African People's Union, 1961–87: A Political History of Insurgency in Southern Rhodesia. Page 1
  2. ^ "Zimbabwe African Peoples Union". ZAPU. Retrieved 18 May 2011. 
  3. ^
  4. ^ "ZAPU Conference, December 2008". Retrieved 18 May 2011. 
  5. ^ "ZAPU congress votes to withdraw from Zanu PF". Retrieved 18 May 2011. 
  6. ^ "ZAPU congress endorses withdrawal". Retrieved 18 May 2011. 

External links

  • Official website of the Zimbabwe African People's Union
  • Zimbabwe: History of a Struggle a 1972 pamphlet by ZAPU
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