World Library  


Add to Book Shelf
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Book

Modelled Sensitivity of the Snow Regime to Topography, Shrub Fraction and Shrub Height : Volume 11, Issue 1 (07/01/2014)

By Ménard, C. B.

Click here to view

Book Id: WPLBN0004012023
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 41
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Modelled Sensitivity of the Snow Regime to Topography, Shrub Fraction and Shrub Height : Volume 11, Issue 1 (07/01/2014)  
Author: Ménard, C. B.
Volume: Vol. 11, Issue 1
Language: English
Subject: Science, Hydrology, Earth
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection, Copernicus GmbH
Historic
Publication Date:
2014
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: copernicus

Citation

APA MLA Chicago

Pomeroy, J., Essery, R., & Ménard, C. B. (2014). Modelled Sensitivity of the Snow Regime to Topography, Shrub Fraction and Shrub Height : Volume 11, Issue 1 (07/01/2014). Retrieved from http://ebook.worldlibrary.net/


Description
Description: Arctic Research Centre, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland. Recent studies show that shrubs are colonizing higher latitudes and altitudes in the Arctic. Shrubs affect the wind transport, accumulation and melt of snow, but there have been few sensitivity studies of how shrub expansion might affect snowmelt rates and timing. Here, a blowing snow transport and sublimation model is used to simulate premelt snow distributions and a 3-source energy balance model, which calculates vertical and horizontal energy fluxes between the atmosphere, snow, snow-free ground and vegetation, is used to simulate melt. Vegetation is parametrized as shrub cover and the parametrization includes shrub bending and burial in winter and emergence in spring. The models are used to investigate the sensitivity of the snow regime in an upland tundra valley to varying shrub cover and topography. Results show that topography dominates the spatial variability of snow accumulation, which in turn dominates the pre and early melt energy budget. With topography removed from the simulations, modelled snow cover is uniform when there is no vegetation but increasing vegetation introduces spatial variability in snow accumulation which is then decreased as further increases in shrub cover suppress wind-induced redistribution of snow. The domain-averaged simulations of premelt snow accumulation also increases with increasing shrub cover because suppression of blowing snow by shrubs decreases sublimation. In simulations with topography, the increase in snow accumulation and its spatial variability with increasing vegetation is less marked because snow is also held in topography-driven drifts. With topography, the existence of wind-scoured snow-free patches at the onset of snowmelt causes exposed ground to contribute to the energy balance such that sensible, advective and radiative heat fluxes are higher than in the flat domain during this period. However, as snowmelt evolves, differences in the energy budget between runs with and without topography dramatically diminish. These results suggest that, to avoid overestimating the effect of shrub expansion on the energy budget of the Arctic, future large scale investigations should consider wind redistribution of snow, shrub bending and emergence, and sub-grid topography as they affect the variability of snowcover.

Summary
Modelled sensitivity of the snow regime to topography, shrub fraction and shrub height

Excerpt
Baker, D., Skaggs, R., and Ruschy, D.: Snow depth required to mask underlying surface, J. Appl. Meteorol., 30, 387–392, 1991.; Best, M. J., Pryor, M., Clark, D. B., Rooney, G. G., Essery, R. L. H., Ménard, C. B., Edwards, J. M., Hendry, M. A., Porson, A., Gedney, N., Mercado, L. M., Sitch, S., Blyth, E., Boucher, O., Cox, P. M., Grimmond, C. S. B., and Harding, R. J.: The Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES), model description – Part 1: Energy and water fluxes, Geosci. Model Dev., 4, 677–699, doi:10.5194/gmd-4-677-2011, 2011.; Beven, K. and Kirkby, M.: A physically based, variable contributing area model of basin hydrology, Hydrological Sciences Bulletin, 24, 43–69, 1979.; Bewley, D., Pomeroy, J., and Essery, R.: Solar radiation transfer through a subarctic shrub canopy, Arct. Antarct. Alp. Res., 39, 365–374, 2007.; Bewley, D., Essery, R., Pomeroy, J., and Ménard, C.: Measurements and modelling of snowmelt and turbulent heat fluxes over shrub tundra, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 1331–1340, doi:10.5194/hess-14-1331-2010, 2010.; Essery, R., Blyth, E., Harding, R., and Lloyd, C.: Modelling albedo and distributed snowmelt across a low hill on Svalbard, Nord. Hydrol., 36, 207–218, 2005.; Blyth, E. M., Harding, R. J., and Essery, R.: A coupled dual source GCM SVAT, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 3, 71–84, doi:10.5194/hess-3-71-1999, 1999.; Bonfils, C. J. W., Phillips, T. J., Lawrence, D. M., Cameron-Smith, P., Riley, W. J., and Subin, Z. M.: On the influence of shrub height and expansion on northern high latitude climate, Environ. Res. Lett., 7, 015503, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/7/1/015503, 2012.; Chapin, F., McGuire, A., Randerson, J., Pielke, R., Baldocchi, D., Hobbie, S., Roulet, N., Eugster, W., Kasischke, E., Rastetter, E., Zimov, S., and Running, S.: Arctic and boreal ecosystems of western North America as components of the climate system, Glob. Change Biol., 6, 211–223, 2000.; Chapin III, F., Sturm, M., Serreze, M., Chapin III, F. S., Sturm, M., Serreze, M. C., McFadden, J. P., Key, J. R., Lloyd, A. H., McGuire, A. D., Rupp, T. S., Lynch, A. H., Schimel, J. P., Beringer, J., Chapman, W. L. Epstein,, H. E., Euskirchen, E. S., Hinzman, L. D., Jia, G., Ping, C.-L., Tape, K. D., Thompson, C. D. C., Walker, D. A., and Welker, J. M.: Role of land-surface changes in Arctic summer warming, Science, 310, 657–660, 2005.; Chasmer, L., Hopkinson, C., Treitz, P., McCaughey, H., Barr, A., and Black, A.: A lidar-based hierarchical approach for assessing MODIS fPAR, Remote Sens. Environ., 112, 4344–4357, 2008.; Clark, D. B., Mercado, L. M., Sitch, S., Jones, C. D., Gedney, N., Best, M. J., Pryor, M., Rooney, G. G., Essery, R. L. H., Blyth, E., Boucher, O., Harding, R. J., Huntingford, C., and Cox, P. M.: The Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES), model description – Part 2: Carbon fluxes and vegetation dynamics, Geosci. Model Dev., 4, 701–722, doi:10.5194/gmd-4-701-2011, 2011.; Cohen, J., Pulliainen, J., Ménard, C. B., Johansen, B., Oksanen, L., Luojus, K., and Ikonen, J.: The influence of tundra shrubs on snowmelt and surface albedo based on satellite data analysis, Remote Sens. Environ., 135, 107–117, 2013.; Dornes, P., Tolson, B., Davison, B., Pietroniro, A., Pomeroy, J., and Marsh, P.: Regionalisation of land surface hydrological model parameters in subarctic and arctic environments, Phys. Chem. Earth, 33, 1081–1089, 2008.; Douville, H., Royer, J.-F., and Mahfouf, J.-F.: A new snow parameterization for the Météo-France climate model, Part I: validation in stand-alone experiments, Clim. Dynam., 12, 21–35, 1995.; Egli, L., Jonas, T., Grünewald, M., Schirmer, M., and Burlando, P.: Dynamics of snow ablation

 

Click To View

Additional Books


  • Derivation of Rcm-driven Potential Evapo... (by )
  • Lacustrine Wetland in an Agricultural Ca... (by )
  • Use of Satellite-derived Data for Charac... (by )
  • Studies of Acid Deposition and Its Effec... (by )
  • Modelling the Effects of Acid Deposition... (by )
  • The European Flood Alert System Efas – P... (by )
  • Technical Note: Analytical Sensitivity A... (by )
  • Participatory Scenario Development for I... (by )
  • Droughts and Floods Over the Upper Catch... (by )
  • A Contribution to Understanding the Turb... (by )
  • Application of Integral Pumping Tests to... (by )
  • Virtual Laboratories: New Opportunities ... (by )
Scroll Left
Scroll Right

 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.